August 1, 2022
National parks and wildlife are of great national importance and is closely associated with climate and natural vegetation, particularly forests. In fact the forest is considered everywhere to be the home of wild animals and birds. There are national parks and wildlife conservation act Nepal. This regulates all the policies and rules and regulation. According to Department of national park and wildlife reserve Nepal, it is reported that there are more than 30 species of big wild animals and about 800 species of wild birds in various ecological belts of Nepal. Bears, musk-deer, leopards, wild yaks, squirrels, wolves, wild goats, wild dogs, etc., are the main types of wild animals found in the Himalayan region. Moreover Giant Kites, Vultures, Tibetan Pigeons, Monal and Danphe are the main species of birds found in the region and among them; Danphe is the national bird of Nepal. Rumors go so far that even Yeti (Snowman) does exist there.
Animals found in the hilly region are such as tigers, bears, wolves, boars, jackals, foxes, monkeys, deer and so on. Birds such as doves, partridges, cranes, falcons, peacocks, etc. are also found in the wildlife of the hilly region. The Terai forest contains still bigger mammals like rhinos, wild buffaloes, wild elephants, tigers, bears, deer, stags, monkeys and so on. Important bird species include cranes, doves, parrots, peacocks, spiny babbler, horn bill (Dhanesh), partridges, falcons, owls, quails, vultures and so on. Main reptiles found in this region of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal, are poisonous snakes (cobra, Krait, Viper), scorpions, tortoises, crocodiles, alligators, Gangetic dolphins, etc. There are not sufficient wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal. In this context, with the sole objective of preserving endangered, vulnerable and rare wildlife on one side and conserving the natural environment in its original form on the other the Government of Nepal has now established 9 national parks, 3 wildlife reserves, 3 conservation areas and 1 hunting reserve in various ecological zones of the country. All these altogether encompass a total area of 23,919 sq.km and most of them are located in the Himalayan zone and Terai belt as described below.
Chitwan National Park is one of the major concerned areas of Nepal’s national park and wildlife, which is also supposed as wildlife holidays in Nepal. The park has been declared as a World Heritage Site (1984). The park is a home for one horned rhinoceros, huge numbers of Tiger, Gharial, gigantic dolphin, gaur, pythons are some of the extra features in the park. Elephant Polo commonly known as Hatti Polo is one of the main attractions of this area. There are lots of resorts and lodge inside and outside the national park in Sauraha. Chitwan National Park is one of the best wildlife photography in Nepal.
Sagarmatha National Park lies in the Khumbu region of Nepal including the highest mountains in the world, Mt.Everest, Lhotse, Nuptse, Cho You, and Amadablam. The park was included in the World Heritage Site in 1974. The park has vegetation like pine, fir, juniper, birch, rhododendrons, scrubs, alpine plants. Sagarmatha National Park is the residence to the Himalayan thar, ghoral, musk deer, Himalayan black bear and snow leopard. The park also includes Sherpa people and their villages.
Langtang National Park is situated in the central Himalayan region of Nepal and shares the border with Tibet and also includes holy lakes of Gosainkunda and forest hill above the village of Helambu. Oaks, chirping, maple, fir, blue pine, various species of rhododendron are some of the main species of vegetation that are found in this park. Wild dog, red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan thar, choral, inhabit, due to the parks attitudinal and topographical variations. The majority of people living within the park is Tamangs and Sherpas are practicing Buddhist religion.
Bardiya National Park is the largest and most undisturbed wilderness area in the Terai. It is thickly forested by Sal trees, grasslands, savannah and riverine forest. Animals like wild elephant, tiger, swamp deer, black buck, Gharial crocodile, and gigantic dolphin and over 200 species of birds are found in the park. It is also most popular wildlife safari in Nepal. Bardiya National Park is one of the top rated wildlife photography in Nepal.
Shey-Phoksundo is the largest National Park of Nepal. It is rich in trans-Himalayan Eco system which lies in the Dolpa and Mugu districts in western Nepal. The Kanjiroba Himal, Shey Monastery, the Phoksundo Lake and Langu Gorge are the major attraction of the park. Blue pine, walnut, willow oak cypresses are found in the lower southern parts. Pine, juniper and birch makes up the flora in the higher altitude. It is the main habitat for the snow leopard, sheep, ghoral, musk deer, wild dog, wolf, Himalayan thar, Himalayan black bear, etc. People of Tibetan background who are Buddhist by religion inhabit the park.
Rara National Park is the smallest park, which covers 106 sq. kms. The biggest lake of Nepal, Rara Lake is habited by snow trout fish and is surrounded by hills richly forested with blue pine, black juniper, oak, Himalayan cypress, horse-chestnut, walnut. Rara National Park is an ideal habitat for musk deer, red panda and black bear.
Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area covers an area of 2,300 sq. kms among which 830sq.kms is the conservation area. This is the most pristine ecosystem of Nepal and is richest in terms of biodiversity. It consists of 67 species of aromatic and medicinal plants, 47 varieties of orchids, 30 varieties of rhododendron, 15 types of oak, 48 species of primrose, 86 species of fodder trees and 67 species of Bamboo. Over 400 species of birds, 84 varieties of fish are found in Arun River. Wildlife includes endangered red pandas, musk deer and Himalayan black bear. Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area is most visit able wildlife photography in Nepal.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park is located in the country’s mid-hills on the northern fringe of the Katmandu Valley covering an area of 159 sq.kms. The area has always been an important water catchment area, supplying the Kathmandu Valley with several hundred thousand cubic liters of water daily. The park includes some historical and religious sites and a popular hiking route for local people and tourists. On higher elevation, a variety of medicinal herbs prosper. Botanists have recorded 129 species of mushrooms and 2,122 flora species, out of which 449 are vascular and 16 are endemic plants. The park is inhabited by Indian leopard, jungle cat, large Indian civet, Himalayan black bear, yellow-throated marten, small Asian mongoose, Himalayan goral, barking deer, wild boar, rhesus monkey, Hanuman Langur, Chinese Pangolin, Indian crested porcupine, Himalayan Pika, clouded leopard and many more.
Khaptad National Park is a treasure well hidden in the Far-Western Region of Nepal. Because of its remote location, it is completely untouched by tourism development, which makes Khaptad a perfect destination for the adventurer looking for a real wilderness experience. It is a holy place for Hindus as it used to be home to the hermit Khaptad Baba who meditated here for 50 years. Khaptad National Park is inhabited by 567 species of flora including rhododendron forests, oak and pine forests. It is also a great place for spotting wildlife with birds, with 23 species of mammals and 287 types of birds. Mammal species symbolic of the park are leopard, Himalayan black bear, wild dog and musk deer. Bird species include the beautiful Impeyan pheasant (Danphe: Nepal’s national bird), Peregrin falcon, cuckoos and many other kinds of bird.
Banke National Park is located in the Mid-Eastern Region of Nepal which reflects the commitment of the Government in Biodiversity conservation at the landscape level. This national park was also recognized as the gift to the earth in 1998. It is home to eight ecosystem types like Sal forest, deciduous Riverine forest, savannahs and grasslands, mixed hardwood forest, flood plain community, and Bhabar and foothills of Chure range. There are about 124 plant species, 34 species of mammals, more than 300 species of fish found in the park and the ninety percent of natural forest is composed mainly of Sal, Karma, Khair and Sissoo. This Park protects 3 species of mammals (tiger, striped hyena and four-horned antelope), 4 species of birds (Giant hornbill, black stork, Bengal florican and less florican) and 2 species of reptlies (Gharial crocodile and python) residing in the park. The Rapti River on the south and the Babai River on the north serves as the water resources for the park.
The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is situated on the embankment of the saptakoshi river system. Its main attraction is the water holes which support the aquatic birds. It has the highest concentration of aquatic birds and the wild buffaloes are the unique feature of the reserve. Gharial crocodile and gigantic dolphins are the extraordinary animals found in the reserve.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve is located in the south-central lowland Terai of Nepal and it is the largest wildlife of Nepal. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the reserve’s vegetation. Khair, Silk cotton tree and pine are also found in huge numbers. The reserve supports good populations of various endangered species include wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Sloth bear and Leopard. Blue bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Jungle cat, etc. are also found in the reserve. The reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds such as White breasted kingfisher, Paradise flycatcher, large racquet-tailed Drongo, Golden backed woodpecker and many more.
Shuklaphanta is situated in the extreme southwest in Nepal with an area of 350 sq.kms. The main attraction of the reserve is the grassland, which is the home of barasinghe (swamp deer) and different types of deer, hog deer, chital, which support tiger and leopard. Sal, asna, semal karma, sissou are the trees that make up the forest and supports wild elephants. More than 200 species of birds are found in the reserve.
Annapurna Conservation Area is situated in Annapurna Himal Region covering an area of 2600 sq.kms, which includes some of the world’s highest peaks and the deep river valley. It has been widely recognized as a naturalist’s paradise because of its extreme geographical variations, which includes middle hills to trans-Himalayan plateaua highest rainy area to rain shadow. It is the internationally renowned model for the sustainable development scheme which aims to integrate environmental conservation.
The Kanchenjunga Conservation Area is a protected area in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal and comprises two peaks of Kanchenjunga. The landscape of the Kanchenjunga Conservation area comprises cultivated lands, forests, pastures, rivers, high altitude lakes and glaciers. Mammal species include the snow leopard, spectacled bear, and red panda. Bird species symbolic of the area include the golden-breasted fulvetta, snow cock, blood pheasant and red billed cough. This Area is inhabited by stunted junipers, roses and rhododendron, gentian and saxifrange abounds. Hardy alpine grasses include Carex, Juncus and Poa. In 2012, a leopard cat was camera trapped at an elevation of 4,500m. This record constitutes the highest known record to date.
The Manaslu Conservation Area is a protected area in Nepal. The area comprises mountains, glaciers and watercourses. This area offers from the beautiful scenery of the majestic Himalayan ranges and high altitude glacier lakes to rich biological and cultural resources. Lamas from monasteries have prohibited the locals to hunt wildlife. This has helped the wildlife to prosper and is a prime habitat for the elusive snow leopard, gray wolf, musk deer, blue sheep and the Himalayan Thar. The region is home to 33 species of mammals, including snow leopard, musk deer and Himalayan Thar and over 110 species of birds and 3 species of reptiles and over 1500-2000 species of flowering plants.
The Blackbuck Conservation Area is located in the Mid-western Region in the Bardiya District, Nepal and was established in 2009 to conserve the endangered blackbuck. Attempts for the conservation of blackbuck in Nepal began in 1975 when a small herd was spotted in Bardiya District. Realizing their fragile existence, immediate efforts were made to protect the herd. The government deployed 5 staff members, providing 4 of them with arms and a guard post was also established in the same year. This particular herd is the northernmost surviving herd of blackbucks in the world. In 2009, the herd numbered 202 comprising 73 males, 111 females and 18 calves.
The Api-Nampa Conservation Area is a protected area in the Far-western Development region, Nepal. It was established in 2010 encompassing 21 Village Development Committees in the Darchula District. Named after 2 peaks API and Nampa, it was established to conserve the unique biodiversity and cultural heritage of the area. Mammalian species include snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, red panda, common langur, Himalayan Thar, Himalayan musk deer, Goral and serow. Birds include Himalayan Monal, snow cock and blood pheasant.
Gaurishankar Conservation Area is a protected area in the Himalayas of Nepal encompassing 22 Village Development Committees as it also connects the Langtang and Sagarmatha National Park. This area is rich in bio-diversity. A total of 16 varieties of vegetation has been identified in the area, including forests of Pinus roxburghii, Schim-Castanopsis, Alnus, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus patula, Rhododendron, Quercus lanata and Temperate mountain oak forest. The Gaurishankar Conservation Area’s mammalian population totals 34 species of mammals. One of the rarest animals in the area is Red panda. A total of 235 species of birds has been recorded from the area. The Conservation area also has 14 snake species, 16 species of fish, 10 types of amphibians and 8lizard species and many more interesting things can be found in the area.
Dhorpatan Hunting reserve is only one hunting reserve of Nepal covering an area of 1,325 sq.km, western part of Nepal in Dhaulagiri Himal Range. The single hunting reserve of Nepal fulfills to meet the needs of hunting for Nepalese and foreign hunters of Bluesheep, Himalayan Thar and some game animal Leopard, Goral, Serow, Himalayan Black bear, barking Deer, Muntjac & Wilbour, etc. Now, here are only four hunting animal that are allowed to hunt in this reserve and whole Nepal. There are also some endangered animals as like Musk Deer, Wolf, Red Panda, Cheer Pleasant and Danphe in this reserve. The reserve is characterized by alpine, sub alpine and high temperature vegetation. Common plant species include fir, pine and birch, rhododendron, hemlock, oak, juniper and spruce; pasturelands occupy more than 50% of the total area of the reserve at higher elevation.
Life Himalaya Trekking specializes on all the above adventures and trek. The well experienced officials for more than a decade in the tourism field in Nepal are working with Life Himalaya to make the stay and journey of our guest memorable in a best way possible. If you have any queries about any of the above journeys or any of the tourism related activities in Nepal, feel free to contact us. We will be delighted to help you at any time of the year. THANK YOU!!!!